Tuesday, April 23, 2024

Study Note for Class Eight Science || Unit 1 Scientific Learning

Unit 1

Scientific Learning

Study Note for Class Six Science || Unit 1 Scientific Learning
Study Note - Unit 1

Scientific learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through observation, experimentation, and evidence-based reasoning. Activities like observation, testing, survey, project work and model building are done for scientific learning.


Choose the correct alternatives.

a) What is the process of experiencing an object, event or process carefully through the sense organs?

(i) test

(ii) hypothesis

(iii) curiosity

(iv) observation✔

b) Which of the following methods is suitable if one has to study whether the farmers of a region use more chemical or organic fertilizers?

(i) observation

(ii) test

(iii) research

(iv) survey ✔

c) Which of the following would you stop your friend from doing in the laboratory?

(i) Tasting or smelling laboratory chemicals. ✔

(ii) Wearing a lab coat.

(iii) Boiling water in a beaker.

iv) Using test tube holder while heating it.

d) What should be done while performing a chemical reaction that produces fumes?

(i) Hands should be kept away.

(ii) It should be carried out on a table.

(iii) It should be kept on a stand.

(iv) It should be carried in a hood. ✔

e) Which is the first step of a scientific study?

(i) investigation

(ii) observation ✔

(iii) testing

(iv) experimentation

2. Distinguish between:

(a) Observations and tests

Observations Tests
1. Observations use sense organs to experience something. 1. Tests are systematic scientific investigations.
2. They focus on careful examination of object/process. 2. They aim to verify hypotheses or gather data.
3. They are often qualitative in nature. 3. They typically produce quantitative measurements.
4. They help in making assumptions or forming theories. 4. They are used to confirm or refute hypotheses.

(b) Research and survey

Research Survey
1. Research begins with a question or curiosity. 1. Survey involves collecting data directly related to a specific topic or problem.
2. It aims for an in-depth study or finding answers. 2. It focuses on deriving conclusions from the data.
3. It can be conducted using various methods such as experiments, observations, interviews, or literature review. 3. It can be conducted through different mediums like paper based surveys, online surveys, etc.

3. Write the reason:

a) Precautions should be taken while conducting experimental work.

Ans: Random scientific work without following safety measures may cause accidents as well as affect the results of observations, tests and experiments. Therefore, precautions should be taken while conducting experimental work.

b) A report is prepared after the experiment and survey are done.

Ans: After the experiment and survey are done, a report is prepared to summarize the findings and conclusions. This report documents the purpose of the study, how the data was collected, the analysis of the data, and the conclusions drawn.

c) Observation is the first step in scientific learning.

Ans: Observation is the first step in scientific learning because it allows us to collect information about objects, events, or processes using our senses. Through observation, we can perceive and understand the world around us, which forms the basis for further scientific inquiry and investigation.

4. Write the answers to the given questions:

a) What is observation?

Ans: The process of experiencing an object, event or process very carefully using the sense organs is called observation.

b) What is the importance of observation in scientific work?

Ans: Observation serves as the foundation for scientific inquiry and understanding of the world around us. It plays a crucial role in scientific discoveries or advancements.

c) What is done in scientific work when there is not enough information from observation?

Ans: When there's insufficient information from observation, a test is conducted to gather additional data.

d) What precautions should be taken while carrying out a scientific experiment?

Ans: The precautions that should be taken while carrying out a scientific experiment:

- Stay safe by using the right gear.

- Measure carefully with accurate tools.

- Keep everything the same except what you're testing.

- Make sure others can do the same experiment and get similar results.

- Be fair and don't let personal feelings affect the experiment.

e) List the things that should be done and should not be done while working in the laboratory.

Ans: The things that should be done:

- Masks, gloves and goggles should be worn while using harmful chemicals.

- An apron or a lab coat must be put on while working in the laboratory.

- Everyone should be aware of the emergency exit.

- Hands should be washed thoroughly with soap after the experimental work.

- The prescribed method should be used while performing experimental work in the laboratory.

- Special care should be taken while using a burner or touching hot objects in the laboratory.

The things that should not be done:

- The materials should not be handled haphazardly.

- Eating and drinking should not be done in the laboratory.

- Chemicals must not be tasted or smelled in the lab.

- Playing and teasing should not be done in the laboratory

- Hot equipment should not be placed directly on the table during the experimental works.

f) What should we pay attention to while researching?

Ans: We should pay attention to the given things while researching:

- Goal setting

- Making inferences or hypotheses.

- Choice of the data collection method

- Preparation of required materials

- Data collection

- Analysis of data

- Conclusion

g) In what conditions is the survey conducted?

Ans: The survey is conducted under conditions where data related to a specific topic or problem can be collected directly. These conditions typically involve utilizing methods such as questionnaires, interviews, discussions, and observations to gather data.

h) What is meant by survey tools? Write with examples.

Ans: Survey tools refer to the instruments or methods used to collect data during a survey. Survey tools include questionnaires and interviews.

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