Sunday, September 5, 2021

NEB Grade XII Compulsory English Note | Language Development | Unit- 2 Family | Alan John Barnard

Unit: 2

NEB Grade XII Compulsory English Note | Language Development | Unit- 2 Family | Alan John Barnar


Working with words

A. Find the words from the text to solve the puzzle.


1. the custom of having more than one wife at the same time- polygamy

5. to find an acceptable way of dealing with opposing ideas, needs etc. - resolve

6. the process in which towns, streets, etc. are built where there was once countryside- urbanization

7. the process by which somebody learns to behave in an acceptable way in their society- socialization


1. ruled or controlled by men -patriarchal

2. the act of taking over a position – succession

3. done in a way without caring if people are shocked- blatant

4. single-parent- one-parent

B. Find the meanings of the following family-related words and use them in your own sentences.

a. nuclear family-

a family that consists of father, mother and children

Peter belongs to a nuclear family owning a large plot of land.

b. monogamy-

the custom of being married to only one person at a particular time

She was back with my brother embracing monogamy.

c. sibling-in-law-

the person who is married to the sibling of your spouse

My sibling- in- law agrees to give me a roof in her house.

d. milk kinship

the kinship arising from adaptation or fostering

In the past, milk kinship used the practice of breast-feeding by a wet nurse to feed a child from the same community or neighboring one.

e. matrilineal-

based on kinship with the mother or the female line

John often tells us that his life is controlled by matrilineal forces because he lives with his wife and four daughters.

f. nepotism-

using power or influence to get good jobs or unfair advantages for members of your family or relatives

Everyone knows Harry is an idiot. His father has hired him because of nepotism.

g. maternity –

the state of becoming mother

My sister will be on maternity leave next month.

C. Make at least five words using the prefixes given.

pre- preheat, precaution, precede, preview, premix

semi- semiannual, semicircle, semiformal, semidesert, semiliquid

sub- subconscious, submarine, submerge, submissive, subordinate

mis- misshaped, misspell, mistrust, mismatch, mislaid

mono- monarch, monastery, monogamy, monograph, monolingual

un- unable, unworried, unclear, unfinished, uneducated

in- involve, incomplete, insignificant, invent, invisible

inter- interaction, interbreed, interconnect, interfaith, interlink


B. Answer the following questions.

a. What type of family is thought to be the oldest form of the family?
A nuclear family is thought to be the oldest form of the family.

b. How does a family provide security to its members?
A family provides security to its members through the warmth, love, and companionship.

c. What were the features of medieval European family?

- It was patriarchal and extended.

- Polygamy was not practiced.

- The status of women was somewhat improved over that suggested in the Hebrew Bible although they still were not allowed to manage their own affairs.

d. What caused the dissolution of extended families in the West?
Industrialization and urbanization caused the dissolution of extended families in the West.

e. What change occurred in gender role in the modern family that emerged after the Industrial Revolution?
Family roles once considered exclusively male or female broke down. Caring for the family, once the duty of the female, is often a joint activity.

f. What is family law?
Family law is the legal relationships among family members as well as the relationships between families and society at large.

g. How is modern marriage defined?
Modern marriage is defined as a voluntary union, usually between a man and a woman.

h. What do special family courts try to do?
Special family courts try to deal more fairly with sensitive issues such as custody of children.

i. What does the legislation on child labour and child abuse declare?
The legislation on child labour and child abuse declares society’s responsibility for a child’s best interests.

j. What is common among most legal systems regarding property?
Division of property left by a deceased family member is common among most legal systems regarding property.

Critical thinking

a. What changes have started to occur in Nepali families in recent days? What impacts will they bring on the society? Discuss.

Most Nepalese families are strongly male dominated and joint. Females are often perceived as the care giver and commonly dependent on their husbands. However, in recent days, some remarkable changes have started to occur in Nepalese families. The family role once considered patriarchal have broken down. Patriarchal rule has begun to give way to greater equality between the sexes. Caring for the home and children once expected to be the duty of the female is now a shared activity.

As the family role is shared, women are not only limited to the family affair. They hold the vital position in the government and non- government offices. Their economic contribution to the family is really admired. They are also the significant part of the development activities, taking place in their community.

b. We see many elderly people in the elderly homes these days in Nepal. Some of them are abandoned while others live there willingly. Do you think Nepali people are deviating from their traditional culture? Give reasons.

These days in Nepal, many elderly people seem to take refuge in old age homes. It is thought that they are financially, physically and mentally weak. The tendency of taking senior citizens as burden and putting them in old age homes has increased. The increasing influence of modernization and western culture, the ancient tradition and culture of respecting elderly people is giving way to anomalies.

As Nepali society experiences change from joint family to nuclear family, elderly people have to bear its negative impact. They are compelled to spend an isolated life and are subjected to insult and abuse, leading to expulsion from home. Disintegration of the family is also increasing rapidly owing to the influence of migration, and foreign employment.

Elderly people should be given equality and equity to enjoy life completely. They should be encouraged to live a blissful and meaningful life. Their experiences and knowledge can be logically used. We can raise funds and set up parks, libraries, theatres, temples and clubs where they can pass their time in company of friends. There should be ageing allowances and free health care to encourage senior citizens to lead an independent life.


A. Write an essay on The Importance of Family.

Importance of Family

A family is a social system which comprises of parents and children. The formation of the family is possible with the relation of blood, marriage, or adoption. A family composition as a bond is often accepted as the strongest unit of a person’s life, which shapes his or her character and personality. Families play a vital role in determining the success or failure of a person as they act as a support system and a source of encouragement in life.

The Family introduces us to the world and instills values and ethics. A human cannot be a social being in the absence of the family. It is the family which showers love and affection, and has the function of socializing children. A person becomes capable in exploring the fields of his interest with the help of the family. Having a family means one can trust someone to share his problems and happiness.

The family helps in retaining the subsistence of humanity. The family bond is embraced by its members who build their core strong and sturdy. The senior family members always teach us about the culture, tradition and ancestry past. From having basic needs fulfilled to an educated path, a family support has the spiritual influence in life that is necessary in the long run. The family guides a child and enhances his intellectual capacities with basic requirements of life and admiration.

In a nutshell, the family is the first school and mentor in our life. The supportive roles of the family members put a soul into an immature individual with appropriate guidance and good mentorship. Therefore, the family is a blessing that comes with life.


Modal verbs

Past Modals of Deduction

We use use a past modal of deduction to make guesses about past actions or states. This can be formed with a modal verb + have + past participle.

must have + past participle is used when we are quite sure about something.

could/ might have or may have + past participle can be used when we think it's not possible that something happened.

can't have and couldn't have + past participle can be used when we think it's not possible that something happened.

B. Choose the best answer to complete the sentences.

a. 'How much was your parking ticket?' 'Fifty rupees.' 'Oh well, it ………… been worse.'

i. could have ii. must have iii. should have

... Answer:
could have

b. It …………. got lost in the post. These things happen sometimes.

i. can't have ii. might have iii. must have

... Answer:
might have

c. 'Sorry I'm late. I got delayed at work.' 'You ……….. called. I was really worried about you.'

i. must have ii. could have iii. would have

... Answer:
could have

d. 'I don't think he meant to be rude.' 'He ……… said sorry.'

i. must have ii. might have iii. would have

... Answer:
might have

e. 'Whose signature is this?' 'I don't know. It ……….. be Manoj's. That looks a bit like an M.'

i. must ii. could iii. should

... Answer:

f. I had it when I left the office so I ………. lost it on the way to home.

i. mustn't have ii. must have iii. should have

... Answer:
must have

g. You ……….. think it's funny, but I think it's pathetic.

i. might ii. should iii. could

... Answer:

C. Complete the following sentences with appropriate endings. Use correct modal verbs.

a. At the end of the course, you should be able to write a research paper on a specific topic.

b. If you want to earn a lot of money, you must work hard.

c. You were not in your house yesterday. You might have gone to the market.

d. I'm quite busy tomorrow. I should take some rest.

e. When you were a small kid, you would vex your mother.

f. My car is broken. I must phone the mechanic.

g. I've got a fast speed internet at home. I can play computer games comfortably.

h. Even though she didn't study well, she could pass the exam.

i. There are plenty of newspapers in the library. You can read them if you want.

j. What do you think you were doing, playing in the road? You may have an accident.

k. I have no time. I will talk to you about my business later.

l. You don't look well. You should visit the doctor.

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