Sunday, April 23, 2017

Class IX (Social Studies- Unit -1 We and Our Society)

Class IX (Social Studies- Unit -1 We and Our Society)
Unit- 1
Types of Society
Here is the division of the society according to subsistence strategies or the ways that humans use technology to provide needs for them:
1. Hunter and Gather Society:
It is considered as the first stage in the development of society. The main food production in such societies is the daily collection of wild plants and the hunting of wild animals. It is the simplest form of society. There was no permanent settlement in such societies. There was no social relation like family, marriage, relatives, etc. They adopted such subsistence strategy to continue their existence. Gradually, they began to use stone weapons and tools for collecting wild plants and wild animals. In such societies, the human was only a consumer not a producer. Though, there was no division of labor, the males used to involve in hunting and the females used to involve in gathering foods. The Raute society of Nepal can be considered as an example of such society. This type of society is still in existence in different parts of the world.
2.Pastoral Society:
The members of pastoral society depend on domesticated herd of animals to meet their needs of food. When the human needs could not be fulfilled only with hunting and gathering, this type of society was formed. It is a slightly more efficient form of subsistence. In such society, the members live a nomadic life moving their herds from one pasture to another. There we can find the division of human society into having more cattle and having less cattle or not having cattle. The human needs are fulfilled through the animal husbandry. Examples of this type of society can be found in Northern region of Nepal, Middle Asia, Tibet, Africa and Middle East.
3. Horticultural Society:
Various kinds of fruits and vegetables grown in garden are the main source of food in this type of society. Some horticulture groups use the slash-and-burn method to raise crops. The wild vegetation is cut and burned, and ashes are used as fertilizers. Such type of society is found in Kenya and New Guinea. There are few societies in Nepal running their livelihood from horticulture.
4. Agrarian Society:
This type of society depends on the agricultural production for livelihood. There are two classes in the agrarian society, feudal and peasant. The agrarian society is considered to be started from Egypt. We can find majority of rural society depending on agriculture. About two-third of Nepal’s population depends on agrarian society.
5. Industrial Society:
The society running its member's livelihood from industrial profession and producing more products for trading is known as industrial society. This type of society is considered to have emerged in 18th century. In the industrial society, the industrialist is called capitalist and the people working in the industries are called proletarians. There is a huge gap between the poor and the rich in such societies. It is rich in cultural diversity. Such societies can be found in developed countries like USA, Japan, South Korea, etc. It is gradually developing in industrial and urban area of Nepal as well.
Elements of a Good Society
Every society possesses some factors as its components. Such factors are known as the elements of society. A society where every member lives a life with dignity, feels proud of being its members, gets the recognition and an opportunity for the development of personality is known as a good society. The elements of a good society are:
1.    Automatic Creation and Development:
When some people gather at a place and start settling there permanently, a kind of collective feeling develops within them. They start caring each other, share feelings and support each other. Such activities automatically form and develops a society.
2.    Collective Sentiment:
There is a collective sentiment in every member of the society. The members of society are close to each other. They support each other and participate in each other’s programs and festivals. They have the common feeling of unity and they care for each other.
3.    Common Life:
The lifestyle of an individual is determined according to the form of society. Every member of the society fulfills the needs like living, education, security, entertainment, etc. from the same society. Generally, every member holds the similar lifestyle within a society.
4.    Feeling of Proud to Ancestral Deeds:
Ancestors are the guidelines for the present generation. Their good deeds are respected and adopted by their descendants. A good society holds the feeling of pride to ancestral deeds.
5.    Fixed Territory:
There is a fixed geographical territory of society. Thus, every member of the society gets an opportunity to share happiness and sorrow with each other. They remain close to each other.
6.    Permanency:
A society is permanent in character. Every member of the society is closely concerned with the geography, climate, lifestyle, occupation, etc.
7.    Provision of Common Norms and Their Application:
Norms are the typical pattern of behaviors that are considered normal in a society. The activities of the members of society are controlled by such norms. Every member of the society mandatorily follows brings its members close to each other.
8.    Specific Name:
Every society possesses its own name. The specific name of the society brings its members close to each other.
9.    Variable Size or Population of Society:
Since the number of people in a particular group who inhabit an area may increase or decrease due to birth, death and migration, the size or population of a society is not fixed. 


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