Friday, April 21, 2017

Class VIII (Social Studies- Unit -2 Social Norms and Values)

Class VIII (Social Studies- Unit -2 Social Norms and Values)
Social Traditions and Customs of Nepal
Guthi System
Guthi is a social organization that is used to maintain the socio-economic order in the Newar community. Guthi has been in practice since the 5th century BC. It was the most powerful social organization of Newars.

Guthi is traditionally a patriarchal kinship based on cetrain norms that are moderated by the Guthi members. Traditionally, it was derived from Gosthi from the Lichchhavi period. It mainly conserves the culture, traditions, rituals and jatras in the Newar communites and protects the religion and cultural heritages of the Newar communities. The senior most member of the family who represents Guthi is called Guthighar and the eldest member of the Guthi is called the Thakali. It plays a significant role in maintaining good harmony preventing anarchy in the Newari community.

Guthi is a trust where land revenue is collected and land is donated to the Guthi. It undertakes various works within the Newar community such as repairing temples, patis, dunge dharas,etc. Most Guthis still exist although the activities that they conduct have diminished considerably.
Bheja Custom
Bheja custom is mainly practiced in the Magar community. It is an organization formed to achieve social target and achievement. It mainly controls and manages various religious, agricultural, economic and social programs and entertainment. The member of the community is called Mukhiya. It also supports in appointing a new priest and preserving the traditional culture and rituals.
Badghar Custom
The Badghar Custom is a traditional custom practiced in the Tharu community in the terai. The Badghar is known as the key person in the Tharu village. He is regarded as the guardian of the Tharu community. He emphasizes on communal unity in the Tharu families, conducts various traditional rites and rituals of birth, marriage, deaths and makes them follow the social rules in the community. He even imposes penalty and fine to those who disobey the social rules.

The Badaghar is still well respected in the Tharu community as he always works for the welfare of the Tharu families. All the Tharu members in a Tharu village nominate a person who is fair, responsible and deserving as the Badaghar for a year on the day of Maghe Sakaranti. He is again nominated for the next year to take the guardianship of the Tharu village depending upon his performance.
Rodighar is a tradition of the Gurung community. The young boys and girls of this community get together at the Rodighar to dance and sing in the evening. It is an ideal institution for entertainment under the supervision of an adult. The membership usually consists of 12 to 15 people. All the members of the  Rodhi usually work together in the field or go together to fetch woods from the forest. The Rodighar helps in making the relationship amongst the people of the community strong and harmonious. They also discuss and plan about the things that they will do the next day.
Parma and Paincho
These two traditions are not specific to any caste. It is common in all parts of Nepal. Parma is the practice of giving and taking help especially in agricultural activities. When the farmers need help to work in the field, they call their neighbours to work for certain hours of the day in their field. In return, they do same for their neighbours. The practice of Parma is thus a system of supporting each other in work turn by turn collectively. It is also called Aalopalo Pratha in Nepalese society. Similarly, Paincho is the system of giving and taking of something. It is related to goods. In this practice, people take the goods which they are in need from others and return it without any addition of interest or amount in due time. Such system is generally found in rural areas but nowadays, due to development of local shops and markets, it has been declining.
In common sense, Dhikuti means store room where various food grains are kept. But now it has been adopted in monetary matters. In this system, money is raised from the Dhikuti members to collect a fund for specific purpose periodically. The collected fund is used by its members turn by turn. After using the fund, the members have to pay minimum interest rate. At present, this system is declared illegal by the government as there are more possibility of cheating and fraud.


  1. The state class 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th standard of high school level Bengali medium, English medium, Hindi medium, Urdu medium, and other medium students of WBBSE have been announced. Every year, WB Madhyamik Model Paper 2022 the WB Kolkata board releases the WB Madhyamik Shiksha Model Question Bank 2022 with suggested answers for all general and vocational course students in grades VI to IX, and this year was no exception.